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    14 Jan 09


    Standart Fumonisin Azaltılması

    Reduction of fumonisin B1 in extruded corn breakfast cereals with salt, malt and sugar in their formulation

    M. Castells*, A.J. Ramos, V. Sanchis and S. Marı´n Food Technology, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain (Received 17 November 2007; final version received 6 October 2008)

    The objective was to determine the effect of added sodium chloride, barley malt and sucrose on the stability of fumonisin B1 (FB1) present in corn flour. Two levels of both sodium chloride (0.4% and 2%) and barley malt (0.8% and 5%) were added to the unextruded corn flour, and six levels of sucrose (3–10%) were used. The addition of sucrose at the lowest salt content (0.4%) as well as salt, either at 0.4% or at 2%, led to a significant decrease of FB1 levels in extruded samples, whereas malt, either at 0.8% or at 5%, did not significantly affect FB1 stability. Decontamination rates depended on the concentrations of added ingredients and ranged from 2% to 92%. The greatest reductions in FB1 content were achieved with extrusion cooking with a high salt content, whilst the lowest reductions were the result of processing corn flour with low contents of both salt and sucrose. Salt at 2% was the most effective ingredient in reducing FB1 content of the final extruded food.

    Keywords: barley malt; extrusion cooking; fumonisins B1; salt; sucrose

    Fumonisins are a group of related polar metabolites produced mainly by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, the most ubiquitous seed-borne fungi associated with corn (Weidenbo¨ rner 2001). They have been shown to be the causative agents of several toxicoses, such as equine leucoencephalomalacia (ELEM), porcine pulmonary oedema (PPE), toxicity to poultry and hepatosis and nephrotoxicity in rodents (Norred and Voss 1994). Epidemiological evidence has also linked fumonisin-contaminated corn consumption with the high incidence of human oesophageal cancer in Transkei region of South Africa, Lixian country of China and north-eastern Italy (Sydenham et al. 1990, 1991; Chu and Li 1994; Doko and Visconti 1994). Current investigations are also aiming to clarify the effect of fumonisins on the heart. It has been suggested that cardiac effects may occur at relatively low levels of exposure (Pitt and Tomaska 2001). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated fumonisins and classified them in Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) (IARC 1993).

    Fumonisins predominantly contaminate corn and corn-based feed and food products. It has been demonstrated that the highest levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), which is the most abundant and toxic contaminant in corn-based foods and feeds among the several structurally related homologues (Lu et al. 2002), are found in those products that undergo only a physical milling or grinding process, such as cornflour, corn polenta, muffin mix, and corn grits. By contrast, low levels have been detected in more highly processed products such as cornflakes, corn tortillas, and popcorn, where thermal (baking, roasting, extrusion cooking) and alkali (nixtamalization) processes are involved (Patel et al. 1997; Solovey et al. 1999; Machinski and Soares 2000; Velluti et al. 2001).

    Extrusion cooking was developed in the 1940s to make puffed snacks and ready-to-eat cereals from cereal flours or grits. In the 1960s the process found numerous new applications, and during the 1970s an extension of its applications occurred (increasing numbers of ready-to-eat cereals, salty and sweet snacks, croutons for soups and salads, dry pet foods, biscuits, etc.). This technology is known as high temperature short time technology (HTST), which produces a wide variety of final and intermediate foods and feeds. It offers several advantages over traditional processes such as versatility, a high quality of the resulting products, the processing of relatively dry viscous materials, minimum nutrient degradation, and significant improvement in digestibility and biological value of proteins (Riaz 2001).
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