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25.01.2016, 13:32 #1Üyelik tarihi: 22.12.2015 Son online zamanı: 10.09.2021
Introduction To Dairy Technology
: Introduction To Dairy Technology : .......
INTRODUCTION TO DAIRY TECHNOLOGY
1. THE UDDER.
The udder consists of four separate parts called quarters. Strong suspensory ligaments support the udder and attach it to the skeleton. They divide the udder in two halves. There is no clearly visible separation between the two quarters of one side, but the fact that just one of them can produce abnormal milk shows that these quarters do not communicate.
Each quarter ends in a teat. At the lower end of the teat is the teat canal, about 1 cm long and surrounded by a strong teat closing muscle. The strength of this muscle determines the ease of milking. A flat teat bottom and a well-closed teat canal largely prevent the penetration of bacteria into the quarters. A "frayed" appearance is often connected with sore teats and mastitis.
Inside the teat is a cavity, the teat cistern. It connects with the udder cistern (the udder has four of such cisterns). The walls of the cisterns are very sensitive and incorrect milking can easily damage them, for instance. About 20 to 25 large milk ducts empty into the udder cistern, which has a capacity of about 1 litre.
The ducts branch out, away from the cistern, becoming finer and finer, until they end in glandular cells, called alveoli, in which the milk is formed. In a well-developed udder there are about two billion of such alveoli, grouped in clusters. Normally their number
decreases during the latter half of the lactation period. Incorrect milking makes the decrease more rapid, which results in lower milk
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