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Konu: Oils and Fats Authentication

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    uyebulut çevrimdışı Üyelik tarihi: 09.07.2009 Son online zamanı: 02.04.2020

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    44

    Standart Oils and Fats Authentication

    : Oils and Fats Authentication [/TD][/TR]
    : Pdf [/TD][/TR]
    : Michael Jee [/TD][/TR]


    Contents
    1 Adulteration and authentication of oils and fats: an overview 1
    MICHAEL JEE
    1.1 Introduction 1
    1.2 Early adulteration and its detection 2
    1.3 Introduction of more systematic methods of detecting adulteration 2
    1.4 Range of methods used today 5
    1.5 Adulteration of vegetable bulk oils 7
    1.6 Adulteration of specialist oils 11
    1.7 Oils derived from genetically modiWed plants 12
    1.8 Organic and non-reWned oils 14
    1.9 Authentication in the future 16
    References 19
    2 Authentication of olive oil 25
    GIORGIO BIANCHI
    2.1 Introduction 25
    2.2 From olives to olive oil 25
    2.2.1 Extraction methods 26
    2.2.2 Exhaustive extraction of olive oil: olive-residue oil 27
    2.3 Olive oil composition: major compound classes 27
    2.4 Olive oil categories 28
    2.5 Contextual meaning of words used 32
    2.6 OfWcial analysis methods 33
    2.7 Quality parameters 33
    2.8 Chemical and chemico-physical analysis 37
    2.9 Oxidation 37
    2.9.1 Lipid hydroperoxides 37
    2.9.2 Autoxidation 37
    2.9.3 Photoxidation 38
    2.9.4 Lipoxygenase oxidation 38
    2.9.5 Transformation of hydroperoxides 38
    2.9.6 Ultraviolet absorption to detect oxidation and reWning 43
    2.9.7 Ultraviolet absorption K232, K270 and K 43
    2.9.8 Double-bond migration to give conjugated polyenes 48
    2.9.9 Peroxide value, anisidine value and thiobarbituric acid test 48
    2.10 Free fatty acids 50
    2.11 Fatty acid composition 51
    2.11.1 Detecting seed oils 51
    2.11.2 Trans fatty acids in reWned and deodorized oils 52
    2.12 High performance liquid chromatography criteria for detecting sophistication
    with seed oils 53
    2.13 Analysis of sterols, sterenes, erythrodiol and uvaol 54
    2.13.1 Sterols 55
    2.13.2 Sterenes 56
    2.13.3 Erythrodiol and uvaol 56
    2.14 Chlorinated solvents and aromatic hydrocarbons 57
    2.15 Fatty acids at the glycerol 2-position by lipase method 57
    2.16 Waxes and olive-residue oil 60
    2.17 Panel test for organoleptic analysis 60
    Acknowledgements 64
    References 64
    3 Authentication of cocoa butter 66
    COLIN CREWS
    3.1 Introduction 66
    3.2 Authenticity issues 68
    3.2.1 Cocoa butter quality 68
    3.2.2 Geographical origin 69
    3.3 Cocoa butter alternatives 69
    3.4 Composition and analysis for authenticity 72
    3.4.1 Acylglycerols 73
    3.4.2 Fatty acids 77
    3.4.3 Sterols 78
    3.4.4 Sterol esters 81
    3.4.5 Sterol degradation products 82
    3.4.6 Tocopherols 83
    3.4.7 Pyrolysis products 84
    3.4.8 Volatile components 84
    3.4.9 Trace elements 85
    3.4.10 Stable isotope ratios 85
    3.4.11 Physical methods 86
    3.4.12 Statistical methods 87
    Future issues 88
    References 89
    4 Authentication of evening primrose, borage and Wsh oils 95
    N. A. MICHAEL ESKIN
    4.1 Introduction 95
    4.2 Fatty acid composition 95
    4.2.1 -Linolenic acid 96
    4.2.2 Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids 97
    4.3 High GLA oils 98
    4.3.1 Evening primrose oil 98
    4.3.2 Borage oil 101
    4.3.3 Triacylglycerol structure of EPO and BO 103
    4.3.4 UnsaponiWable fraction of EPO and BO 105
    4.3.4.1 Tocopherols 105
    4.3.4.2 Phytosterols 106
    4.4 Fish oils 107
    4.4.1 Sardine oil 107
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    Konu Nuran AYDEMİR tarafından (01.06.2012 Saat 11:15 ) değiştirilmiştir.
    yusufcukur bunu beğendi.

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