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    antiseptic5 çevrimdışı Üyelik tarihi: 09.08.2012 Son online zamanı: 28.04.2013

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    Standart protozoa ders notu(İngilizce)

    : Occurrence and diversity of free-living protozoa on butterhead lettuce [/TD][/TR]
    : Pdf [/TD][/TR]
    : Michael Jee [/TD][/TR]

    1. Introduction
    To date, knowledge of quality, food safety and microbial
    contamination of vegetables mainly concerns spoiling and pathogenic
    bacteria, yeasts and molds, parasitic protozoa, nematodes and viruses
    (Barth et al., 2009; Nguyen-the and Carlin, 2000). However, there is a
    paucity of information about free-living protozoa (FLP) on vegetables.
    Free-living protozoa (i.e., amoebae, flagellates, and ciliates) are singlecelled
    eukaryotic microorganisms which are ubiquitous in aquatic and
    terrestrial ecosystems, and are one of the main predators of bacteria.
    Most of the studies about FLP on vegetables were focused on free-living
    amoebae. Representatives of the genera Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella,
    Naegleria and Vannellawere recovered frommushrooms and vegetables
    such as carrots, cauliflower, lettuce, radishes, onions, spinach and
    tomatoes (Ciurea-Van Saanen, 1981; Gourabathini et al., 2008;
    Napolitano, 1982; Napolitano and Colletti-Eggolt, 1984; Rude et al.,
    1984; Sharma et al., 2004). There are limited data on ciliate andflagellate
    diversity on vegetables. Ciliates (Colpoda sp., holotrichs and hypotrichs)
    were recovered from mushroom surfaces (Napolitano, 1982) but no
    identification to species levelwas performed. Gourabathini et al. (2008)
    reported high flagellate counts in drained water from spinach and
    romaine lettuce and asmaller number of amoebae and ciliates in drained
    water fromspinach. Two isolated ciliateswere identified asGlaucoma sp.
    and Colpoda steinii. In a previous study, a high diversity of FLPwas found
    on surfaces of vegetable trays in domestic refrigerators and it was
    suggested that the protozoan diversity recorded may be related to FLP
    present on vegetables (Vaerewijck et al., 2010).
    Most FLP are not associated with foodborne illness. However, in
    vitro studies showed that some FLP such as Acanthamoeba spp. and
    Tetrahymena spp. are able to act as hosts for foodborne pathogens and
    protect internalized bacteria against adverse conditions such as
    desiccation and exposure to disinfectants (Snelling et al., 2006).
    Gourabathini et al. (2008) documented that the ciliates Glaucoma sp.
    and Tetrahymena pyriformis isolated from vegetables internalized
    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson,
    and subsequently expelled small vesicles containing these bacteria. S.
    enterica serovar Thompson entrapped in Tetrahymena sp. vesicles
    were protected against low concentrations of calcium hypochlorite
    (Brandl et al., 2005). In order to evaluate the role and potential risk of
    FLP as reservoir or vector of foodborne pathogens, knowledge on the
    occurrence and diversity of FLP in food-related habitats (Baré et al.,
    2009; Vaerewijck et al., 2008; Vaerewijck et al., 2010) and raw food
    products, such as fresh vegetables, is necessary.
    The main objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and
    provide an inventory of FLP diversity on leaves of commercially
    available lettuce. Four different sampling methods were applied to
    recover FLP from the leaves. The diversity was determined by light
    microscopy (morphospecies) and sequencing (phylotypes) of excised
    DGGE-separated 18S rRNA gene fragments. In addition, the effectiveness
    of washing and spin-drying for removing FLP from lettuce leaves
    was tested.

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    Konu Nuran AYDEMİR tarafından (13.08.2012 Saat 11:31 ) değiştirilmiştir.

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